National Science Foundation

Behavior and Design of Cast-in-Place Anchors
under Simulated Seismic Loading (NEES-Anchor)
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Experimental data archived at

    Cast-in-place anchors are used in connecting steel members (i.e., girders and columns) with concrete (i.e., walls and foundations). Headed studs are used in transferring shear between steel and concrete in composite construction. The behavior of anchor connections directly affects the behavior of the structure in regions of moderate or high seismic risk. Recent major earthquakes have raised concerns about the seismic performance of anchor connections: anchor failure has caused damage in power transmission lines, power loss for hospitals, and poor behavior of steel columns. Cast-in-place anchors in ACI 318

    The behavior of cast-in-place anchors under seismic loading can be affected by severe cracking and crushing of concrete. Extensive studies have been conducted for understanding the behavior of anchors cast/post-installed in concrete that experienced controlled minor damage. Consequently, the current design provisions may need to be limited to connecting secondary non-structural elements, in which the anchors can be placed in regions with predictable damage.  In addition, anchor connections are required to have adequate ductility. Anchors/studs may fail due to anchor rod fracture (usually deemed to be ductile) and/or breakout or splitting of concrete (usually brittle if not with supplementary reinforcements).  

Experimental Program:

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  • Phase I: Unreinforced single anchors subjected to cyclic loading (Spring 2010)
  • Phase III: Reinforced single anchors subjected to tension  (Spring 2011)
  • Phase IV: Anchor groups in plastic hinge zones of a concrete wall at NEES-UIUC (Summer 2011)
  • Other Tests: Double shear tests of anchor rods with exposed lengths  (Spring 2011)
Analytical Development:

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  • MathCAD Design aids  for cast-in-pace anchors
  • Load-deformation models for single anchor
  • Zero-length interface element for anchor connections
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